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Fukushima: Can Japan's Largest Power Company Survive Its Disaster?福岛;日本最大的电力公司能够灾后幸存么?  

2011-05-29 21:00:16|  分类: 默认分类 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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               The people running the show at Tokyo Electric Power Company, the embattled utility that is struggling to shut down its Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, were probably not out enjoying the sunny, late spring Friday in Tokyo. It's been a bad week for the Japan's largest utility, even given the astoundingly bad couple of months before it. On Friday, the day after Japan declared that it had sunk back into recession on the back of two quarters of negative growth, the company reported losses of $15 billion for the fiscal year ending in March, and Tepco's president Masataka Shimizu stepped down in a gesture of taking responsibility for the disaster. 东京的东京电力公司正在对备受困扰的公共设备采取措施;努力设法关闭福岛——日本大一针核电厂。可能人们已经不喜欢阳光明媚,正逢晚春季节的星期五。这对日本最大的公共设施来说,是非常糟糕的一周。甚至在本周前两个月里就已经发生了令人惊奇的恶性事件。星期五这天日本政府宣布;三月份财政年度即将结束,日本经济下滑超过50%,东电公司报道亏损150亿美元。东电公司总裁清水正孝辞职,并表态对这次灾难负责。

        Shocking? Not so much. Japanese leaders in both the public and private spheres regularly take the fall for failings in the institutions they oversee. It's a cultural expectation that goes all the way to the top: Prime Minister Naoto Kan is, after all, Japan's fifth head of state in the last five years. Hatoyama, who had the job before him, only lasted eight months. 感到震撼么?还行。因为所监管的机构运作失败,日本领导人在公共场所和私人区域定期接受责备。这是政府行驶各种途径直至顶级人士对民众展现出的文明期待值;首相菅直人毕竟是过去五年里第五位国家首领。在他之前的鸠山由纪夫只延续了8个月。

         Still, Shimizu's departure and the $15 billion loss announced today underscore the incredible snarl in which Tepco finds itself, and raise questions over whether the company will survive. The company's stock has fallen over 80% since March 11, from about $26 to $4.3 on Friday morning. Its $15 billion loss is the largest in Japanese corporate history outside the financial sector, according to Dow Jones. But losses next year — and the years after that — will be worse: the company has a mix of exorbitant problems on its hands, including shutting down the crippled reactors and then sealing off the Fukushima plant; figuring out a way to continue to meet its energy supply obligations; and providing what is projected to be tens of billions of dollars in compensation to evacuated households and industries that are just beginning to calculate their immediate – forget about long-term — losses. 今天,清水宣布辞职,宣布150亿美元的亏损,强调了东电公司内人们发现的难以置信的自身混乱,其中出现的问题足以能质疑到公司是否还要生存。星期五上午,公司的股票自三月11日以来跌落80%从26美元左右跌倒4.3美元。根据道琼斯工业股票估计,东电公司150亿美元亏损是日本公司财政部门以外历史上最大的亏损。但是次年——明年后数年的亏损将更严重:这个公司还有过度问题混合法,包括关闭致残的反应堆,封锁福岛电厂;负责设想出某种继续提供能源的途径;计划向疏散拆迁户和开始预测有可能长期受到直接亏损的工业公司提供数百亿美元的赔偿金。

          This week, a fishing organization from Ibaraki Prefecture visited Tepco's headquarters in Tokyo to demand 420 million yen (about $5 million) in compensation for the fact that the utility's plant both inadvertently leaked and purposefully dumped radioactive water into their fishing grounds. Fishermen along the coast of northeast Japan have been struggling to sell their catch; many have stopped altogether. The group from Ibaraki was the first to officially demand compensation but they will not be the last: agricultural co-ops from at least two other prefectures around the plant have sought another $37 million in compensation, and more fishing associations are considering doing the same. 这个星期,茨城县一家渔业团体走访了东京东电公司总部。鉴于电厂公共设施有意向渔场泄露遭放射性辐射的水,故意将这种水倾倒入渔场内的事实,渔业团体要求东电公司赔偿4亿2千万日元(约5百万美元)。日本东北沿海渔民在努力销售他们捕获的产品;许多渔民已经完全停止海产品销售。茨城县团体是首个向官方索赔的团体,但是他们绝不是最后一个:电厂周围有两个以上其他县已寻求到另一项3千7百万美元的索赔。更多其他渔业协会也在考虑同样事项。

           Various plans for bailing the company out have surfaced. Tepco has reportedly considered selling a tract of protected land that it owns in Oze National Park to meet the compensation claims that have come up this week, a move that the government has urged it to reconsider, saying that other cuts, such as in employees' salaries, could be made before it starts selling off property that it pays the upkeep for. 帮助这个公司脱离困境的多种方案已出台。据报道,东电公司已经考虑出售小瀬国家公园大片受保护土地,以应付本周来临的索赔要求。公司计划搬迁。这项任务已几经政府催促。报道还说到其他几项削减;例如,削减雇员工资,廉价出售平时化钱维护的房产,削减日常支付费用。

           While the government has stopped short of the politically suicidal move of bailing Tepco out, it has tabled a plan to prevent the utility from going under entirely. Tokyo has proposed to set up a state-backed body that would help Tepco meet its compensation claims through funding provided by the federal government and other Japanese nuclear power companies. Kan's government has insisted as part of this plan that no cap be put on the compensation claims. (A move also undoubtedly made in the spirit of self-preservation.) 政府险些将东电公司作为政治自毁事件排除在外。此时,政府制定了防止公共设施完全失败的方案。东京市政府建议建立一个国家支持主体;它通过联邦政府和日本其他核电公司提供资金来满足向东电公司索赔的要求。菅直人政府强调不压抑索赔要求是政府计划的一部分。(迁移无疑也是在体现自我保护精神。)

           Whether the administration's plan to save Tepco – and itself – will work is another matter. The proposal still has to move through Parliament, where the nation's two main parties can't even agree on the much simpler task of coming up with reconstruction plans for the tsunami-struck coast. At this moment in a Japan-turned-upside-down, with the future of the nation's energy supply up in the air and Tepco workers still trying to assess how bad the damage to the plant actually is, there is little that is certain, and even less that is sacred. 管理方案是否能挽救东电公司——方案本身是否运作又是另一回事。提议仍要移交议会通过。议会中两个主要党派甚至还不会同意如此简单的任务派遣;此时又正赶上实施遭海啸摧毁的海岸地区灾后重建计划。此时的日本已处于神魂颠倒,国家能源供应的未来也陷入云雾之中。东电公司的职工仍在设法估算电厂实际遭遇的损毁有多严重;几乎完全没有可靠的依据可循,更何况还是大家严肃认真而为的。

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